INTRODUCTION TO CAMERA CONCEPTS
|Here you'll explore the behaviour of video cameras and how they manage the recording of light (images), and what technologies and techniques need to be understood in to manually operate a camera for best effect.|
What codes and conventions apply to how we create shots and sequence them? Why must you rarely if ever use camera in auto? What is reciprocity and how when and where do we operate Iris, shutter, and aperture?
|Course Notes & Suitability|
Skill level range:
Students making any film/video, teachers & Lecturers of Media and/or Film TV Production
Beginners to advanced
GCSE, C&M Diploma 1,2,3 A-level Film, Media Studies, Intnl Bac, BA/BSc/MA/MSc Film & TV Production, BTEC L12,3 Media Production, City & Guilds
K12, High School Diploma, Batchelors/Masters Film & TV Production, Batchelors Communications, Digital Media Production
Lighting, and possessing the skills to light effectively and creatively is probably the single most important skill students and instructors lack in the teaching of video, film and television production.
Effective lighting is without doubt the most frequently ignored and under represented skill-set in media and film production whether for television or Internet distribution.
This course is suitable to take complete beginners in lighting from a basic understanding of the health and safety through to reasonably advanced concepts.
A common misconception is that newer high-definition video cameras and DSLR photographic cameras with video capability no longer require adequate lighting. Whilst modern cameras do require lower levels of lighting, lighting for visibility, depth and emotion is crucial in factual AND drama production.
|s||Equipment / Resourcing Guide (11-18)|
If no student “group activities" are planned with only instructor led presentation, then for nights are required (with spares recommended). Instructors are recommended to use entry-level professional lighting (e.g. Ianiro, Lowell Pro) -most cost effectively bought as a 4 light kit with soft case and 4 light stands.
If budgets are an issue instructors may instead opt to use builders or DIY/home improvement lights, ensuring however that manufacturers guidelines are followed.
Several dozen clothes pegs (clothes pins (US)) together with a basic set of lighting modifiers from companies including Rosco Lighting, Lee Filters or Calumet.
- 6 x 0.3 ND and 6 x 0.6 ND filters
- 4 x 1/2 diffusers, 4 x Spun glass diffusers
- 8 x 1/2 CTO and 8 x 1/2 CTB
Using hot light can be dangerous, and the instruction of groups of students (particularly under 16) should be kept ideally to sizes of no more than 12 students.
For optimal learning outcomes “hands-on" teaching where students have access to lighting themselves, working groups of no more than 4 or 5 students per group are recommended. Disengagement and drift can occur in larger groups.
Unsupervised use of lighting of any form, by students, is at the discretion and professional judgement of the instructor.
|s||Equipment / Resourcing Guide (18-24)|
If no student “group activities" are planned with only instructor led presentation, then for nights are required (with spares recommended). Instructors are recommended to use non entry professional lighting (e.g. Dedolight, ARRIlight or Ianiro) -most cost effectively bought as a 4 light kit with soft case and 4 light stands.
In addition to the lighting resourcing for 11 to 18 instructors already given:-
- examples of cold lighting (CFL/LED) sources
- a pair of lighting flags/fingers with stands for each kit
- expandable (e.g. lastolite) reflector disks
- half and full scrims & gobos
In post-18 (higher education) is important to ensure that professional lighting found in industry is used wherever possible, subject to cost.
workshop/tutorial “hands-on" activities using hot lights must be supervised with clear, and unambiguous and extensive instruction in health and safety issues relating to cabling, hot lights, and power consumption of multiple lights. (These issues are introduced in the learning materials)
Self-study or assessment working should ideally be carried out in student working groups of no more than 2 to 3 students each. (Lecturers and instructors must insure proper evidence gathering to avoid “lazy students" or “passing off" of others teamwork due to lack of participation by some students.
Each student group must have access to the same basic lighting kit outlined for instructors, who may also wish to include cold/CFL/LED lighting kit to broaden students understanding.